Ramadan is a pre-eminent European Muslim intellectual and author about Islam in public life. He is a Prof of Contemporary Islamic Studies at Oxford University, as well as holding academic positions at other institutions worldwide. In February 2018, Ramadan was accused of raping two women (a third charge was dropped) and was arrested in that same month pending his trial. The French justice system has come under scrutiny for the way it has treated Ramadan since then, denying him bail and putting him in solitary confinement where his physical health has deteriorated (he suffers from multiple sclerosis). The testimony of one of his accusers has been discredited. Prominent activists (e.g.Noam Chomsky) have signed petitions calling for Ramadan to be treated fairly.