Sima Samar is medical doctor who lived as a refugee for over a decade. She established the Shuhada Clinic to provide health care for fellow Afghan women refugees in Pakistan. Upon her return to Afghanistan she served as Minister of Women’s Affairs of Afghanistan (2001 to 2003). She has established an institute of higher education and carries on human rights works both nationally and internationally. She is currently the Chairperson of the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) and the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Sudan.